Standard Library

The C standard library is a collection of pre coded functions , macros, data-types, etc, that perform many common tasks (why reinvent the wheel).

 

Its APIs are declared in header files:

<assert.h> Contains the assert macro, used to assist with detecting logical errors and other types of bug in debugging versions of a program.
<complex.h> C99 set of functions for manipulating complex numbers.
<ctype.h> Defines set of functions used to classify characters by their types or to convert between upper and lower case in a way that is independent of the used character set (typically ASCII or one of its extensions, although implementations utilizing EBCDIC are also known).
<errno.h> For testing error codes reported by library functions.
<fenv.h> C99 Defines a set of functions for controlling floating-point environment.
<float.h> Defines macro constants specifying the implementation-specific properties of the floating-point library.
<inttypes.h> C99 Defines exact width integer types.
<iso646.h> NA1 Defines several macros that implement alternative ways to express several standard tokens. For programming in ISO 646 variant character sets.
<limits.h> Defines macro constants specifying the implementation-specific properties of the integer types.
<locale.h> Defines localization functions.
<math.h> Defines common mathematical functions.
<setjmp.h> Declares the macros setjmp and longjmp, which are used for non-local exits.
<signal.h> Defines signal handling functions.
<stdalign.h> C11 For querying and specifying the alignment of objects.
<stdarg.h> For accessing a varying number of arguments passed to functions.
<stdatomic.h> C11 For atomic operations on data shared between threads.
<stdbool.h> C99 Defines a boolean data type.
<stddef.h> Defines several useful types and macros.
<stdint.h> C99 Defines exact width integer types.
<stdio.h> Defines core input and output functions
<stdlib.h> Defines numeric conversion functionspseudo-random numbers generation functionsmemory allocationprocess control functions
<stdnoreturn.h> C11 For specifying non-returning functions.
<string.h> Defines string handling functions.
<tgmath.h> C99 Defines type-generic mathematical functions.
<threads.h> C11 Defines functions for managing multiple Threads as well as mutexes and condition variables.
<time.h> Defines date and time handling functions
<uchar.h> C11 Types and functions for manipulating Unicode characters.
<wchar.h> NA1 Defines wide string handling functions.
<wctype.h> NA1 Defines set of functions used to classify wide characters by their types or to convert between upper and lower case

Source: wikipedia

 

Another Great source with examples: tutorialspoint

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